The legislative process in China includes the following four stages:
1. Introducing a Bill
Relevant parties propose a bill to the National People’s Congress (the NPC) or its Standing Committee.
The NPC Presidium, the NPC Standing Committee, a delegation, or a group of thirty or more deputies may propose a bill to the NPC.
The State Council, the Central Military Commission, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate and all special commissions of the NPC may propose a bill to the NPC and its Standing Committee.
The Council of Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the NPC may propose a bill to the NPC and its Standing Committee.
2. Bills deliberation
After being included in the agenda of the NPC or its Standing Committee, the bill shall be deliberated separately by the NPC or its Standing Committee.
A bill to be deliberated by the Standing Committee shall, as a general rule, be deliberated three times at the sessions of the Standing Committee before being put to vote.
For the first deliberation: they shall listen to the illustrations made by the proposer, and then preliminary deliberation through group meetings shall be made.
For the second deliberation: they shall listen to the report made by the Law Committee on the amendment and main issues of the drafted bill for further deliberation through group meetings.
For the third deliberation: they shall listen to the report made by the Law Committee on the result of the deliberation on the drafted bill, and the revised drafted law shall be deliberated once again at group meetings.
3. Voting on bills
After amendments subject to the opinions after deliberations, the Law Committee of the NPC shall propose another bill draft for voting, which will be submitted by the NPC Presidium to the plenary session of the NPC for voting, and such bill draft must be passed by more than half of all deputies to the NPC or all members of the Standing Committee of NPC.
4. Public Announcement
Laws passed by a vote shall be published by the presidential order signed by the President of the State.
For all Chinese laws, please click the List of China's Laws.
Legislation Law of China (2015)
Contributors: CJO Staff Contributors Team